Botox

In cosmetics, a Botox injection, consisting of a small dose of botulinum toxin, can be used to prevent formation of wrinkles by paralyzing facial muscles.[1] As of 2007, it is the most common cosmetic operation, with 4.6 million procedures in the United States, according to the America Society of Plastic Surgeons. Qualifications for Botox injectors vary by county, state and country. Botox Cosmetic providers include dermatologists, plastic surgeons, cosmetic physicians, nurses’ practitioners, nurses, physician assistants, and medical spas. The wrinkle preventing effect of Botox lasts for approximately 3-4 months[1][2], up to 6 months[2].

In addition to its cosmetic applications, Botox is currently used in the treatment of spasms and dystonias such as blepharospasm (excessive blinking)[3] and can effectively suppresses these symptoms for 60-70 days[4].

  1. Baylor College of Medicine > Botox for Wrinkles Last modified: September 30, 2009. By Dr. Ramsey Markus
  2. Realself.com > How long does Botox last? Answers by Harold J. Kaplan, MD and William J. Hedden, MD. Retrieved on Jan 12, 2009
  3. Shukla HD, Sharma SK (2005). "Clostridium botulinum: a bug with beauty and weapon". Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 31 (1): 11–8. doi:10.1080/10408410590912952. PMID 15839401.
  4. Bihari K (March 2005). "Safety, effectiveness, and duration of effect of BOTOX after switching from Dysport for blepharospasm, cervical dystonia, and hemifacial spasm dystonia, and hemifacial spasm". Curr Med Res Opin 21 (3): 433–8. doi:10.1185/030079905X36396. PMID 15811212.

                                                     
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